Kidneys are important organ of our body our both kidneys are bean shaped, size 9-10cm each (length) placed on both side of loin. Each kidney contains one million nephrons which help in removing the waste materials like urea, creatinine, excess potassium and phosphorus from our body. Kidneys also help in maintaining the fluid & acid base balance, controlling blood pressure, maintaining the haemoglobin level and to keep the strength of the bone. So once kidney function starts deterioting there will be rise of blood urea, serum creatinine, serum potassium, Phosphorous, uric acid & increase in excretion of protein in the urine and drop of haemoglobin. But unfortunately only after 50% of kidney damage, these manifestations are seen in the blood & urine. Many times kidney diseases are diagnosed in an advanced stage, so it is called as a silent killer.
The two most common cause of kidney diseases are diabetes and hypertension which contribute to 40-60% of all kidney diseases. Rest of the kidney diseases are due to glomerular diseases, familiar kidney diseases & urogenital tract infection, stone & congenital anomalies. The chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been divided into 5 stages according to eGFR. Upto Stage-IV the treatment is conservative. Dialysis & transplant are the options for CKD-V (ESRD). Though CKD is not curable, early detection with urinary protein, serum urea & creatinin estimation in high risk groups & diabetes & hypertensive patients can help to slow down the progression of kidney diseases. With control of diabetes, hypertension, dietary protein restriction and other necessary measure including avoidance of pain killer tablets (NSAID) are the useful measurers to slow down progression of kidney disease.